Language Log: October Archives
Dec 25, Word2Vec(sentences, size=dimension,iter = 10,sg=1,workers=4) . vandalism I had Wiki words in there that pointed directly to the topics being discussed . that it has been renominated for deletion dated Jan 13 IMO the page is Dalits for all I know I have the vociferous complaints of the editors on this. Main · Videos; Vociferous in a sentence yahoo dating. Client: i don't recall she's thru her recall phone, no, but i didn't depressingly recall her. Craiglslist the. Definition of restoration - the action of returning something to a former owner, place, or condition, the return of a monarch to a throne, a head of state to.
There is nothing wrong with it. What I said was merely that I hated it, and I won't be using it. I did mention the oddness that it doesn't seem to follow a regular pattern a suntanned person is not a "person of suntan"but that was incidental; it's just part of what I think might have initially made the phrase irritating to me when I first heard it.
Much more important is that I stressed that I was evincing a purely personal dispreference: And that was my key point, the one that I related to an issue about attitudes to language. Not everything is objectionable just because I or you have a personal distaste for it.
The solution for you if you hate the term person of color, or the taste of real ale, or the notion of pineapple on your pizza, or the use of they with a morphosyntactically singular antecedent, is essentially the same in each case: That's what the worst of the grammar grumblers and usage whiners consistently fail to see: Your dislike of split infinitives might instead simply mean that you hate them: In that case, don't use them.
Posted by Geoffrey K. Editors' Note If readers of the Book Review have been considering picking up a little conversational Hindi, they would probably do well not to begin with the sample list of words in the Jan.
Indian readers pointed out that while most of the Hindi terms in the review were innocuous, several were in fact obscene -- suitable for Chandra's tough-guy characters, no doubt, but not for the Book Review, where editors failed to check the meaning of the words in the novel's glossary. Just another item in the annals of taboo avoidance, in the "Oops! The price of modesty is eternal vigilance.
But it does have one useful function: A computer geek might be a person of RAM? Well, people who are not bald could be called persons of hair, for example.
- Other words in the Uncategorized category:
But Claire's observation reminds me of something that struck me as very strange when I first encountered it -- the use of "the sex" to mean "the female sex", just as a "person of color" has come to mean a "person of darkish color".
Claire's reference to markedness explains both usages; but the explanation has a subtle twist in it, I think, that may be worth exploring. It's been given various technical meanings in various linguistic theories over the years -- originally, I think, in the phonological theories of Nikolai Trubetzkoy -- but these days, it's mainly used in a more informal way, to talk about attributions of naturalness in general.
This typically involves a system of classification or description where some sub-groups are "marked" and thus distinctive or noteworthy while others are "unmarked" and thus the normal or default case. The gendered names of animals are a common example, as in the wikipedia article: A marked form is a non-basic or less natural form. An unmarked form is a basic, default form.
For example, lion is the unmarked choice in English — it could refer to a male or female lion. But lioness is marked because it can only refer to females.
Vociferous: In a Sentence – WORDS IN A SENTENCE
Now as I mentioned, for about years, the phrase "the sex" could be used used to mean "the female sex", i. Here are the citations from the OED for this sense of the word sex: Less often, simple "sex" without the article was used to mean "female": But if "male" is unmarked and "female" is marked, why did "the sex" come to mean "the female sex"?
You might think this is backwards -- if the default lion is a male lion, why wasn't "the unspecified sex" the male sex? Well, Claire's point is that we tend to put unmarked or default properties in the background, and bring just the marked properties -- or groups -- out to be noted or named.
Thus to note the relevance of the category of sex is to imply that the sex in question is female, just as to note the relevance of the category of color is to imply that the color in question is "black" or "brown" or "yellow".
Except in ironic contexts, this usage of "the sex" seems to have died out in the s or thereabouts. There's some evidence, I think, that persons of gender found "the sex" offensive even in the 19th century. Elizabeth Barrett Browning, for example, used this phrase only once in her poetry.
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She puts it in the mouth of a sexist parodying someone even more sexist. Here's the passage in question. In Aurora Leigh second bookAurora's cousin Romney, in the context of asking her to marry him, disparages her ambitions as a poet. Because the sequence of speakers can be hard to follow, I've put Romney in blue and Aurora in red. Women as you are, Mere women, personal and passionate, You give us doating mothers, and perfect wives, Sublime Madonnas, and enduring saints!
I am young, And peradventure weakyou tell me so Through being a woman. And, for all the rest, Take thanks for justice. I would rather dance At fairs on tight-rope, till the babies dropped Their gingerbread for joy,than shift the types For tolerable verse, intolerable To men who act and suffer. Better far Pursue a frivolous trade by serious means, Than a sublime art frivolously.
Did it just gradually cease to be used? Was there an explicit campaign against it? Perhaps someone has already studied this -- if you know of such work, please tell me.
Just a note on a phenomenon similar to referring to "the female sex" as simply "the sex": I agree that this is exactly the same pattern, abstractly considered. But the sequence of citations for this sense of race in the OED suggests that it might also have had some function as a euphemism, which does not seem to have been true for the use of "the sex" to mean "the female sex": Take 'goose,' for example.
I also don't agree that the 'race' example is equivalent to 'sex'; the term 'race music' was mainly used by black people, just as many Hispanics refer to themselves as "la raza", while 'the sex' seemed to have been used primarily by men. My guess is that 'the sex' went out of use as the word 'sex' came to mean sexuality or sexiness. I wonder if this was around the same time as when the meaning of 'make love' shifted from 'woo' or 'court' to 'have sexual intercourse'.
The last point may well be valid -- certainly the early part of the 20th century, when "the sex" seems to have gone out of favor as a way to say "women", was also the time that Freudian talk about sex came into prominence. Dave's reference is explained sans Haldane and divorce here: There is reference to 'septemviri' in the Elizabethan statutes ofbut the court as it survives today was first embodied in the new statutes of as a disciplinary court for senior members.
It comprised six persons with the Chancellor presiding and was normally referred to as the Sex Viri and ever so wittily as the Sex Weary. The statutes substituted the Vice-Chancellor for the Chancellor, and allowed appeal to the Chancellor, or his deputy, and two assessors. Inwithout any necessity to revise the composition of the court, it was re-christened the 'septemviri'. Whatever their number, we can judge the attitude of these viri towards sex by the fact that they expelled William Empson in because a college servant found condoms in his room.
The most recent example to catch my eye is this post by Robert Spencer at Jihadwatch, a blog to which I referred the other day. Spencer quotes the following passage from an AP news item: Benkahla was one of only two defendants who were acquitted in the government's prosecution of a dozen Muslim men who participated in what the government called a "jihad network" that used paintball games in the Virginia woods in and as a means to train for holy war around the globe.
IHe criticizes the Associated Press for questioning the truth of the government's allegation that the men were training for jihad: The government called it a "jihad network.
That they gained ten convictions on that basis might suggest that there was something accurate in this designation, but you wouldn't get that impression from this story.
Spencer seems to think that putting "jihad network" in quotes calls it into question. There are a number of reasons for putting a phrase into quotes. Doubt about the validity of the characterization is one of them, but it is by no means the only one, or even the most common or default.
Another reason is that the phrase is someone else's and is not a standard term. That's almost certainly what the AP intended here. What is especially strange here is that although the quoted phrase itself admits of ambiguity as to the AP's intended meaning, the passage as a whole does not. The relative clause "who participated in what the government called a 'jihad network' that used paintball games in the Virginia woods in and as a means to train for holy war around the globe.
The AP article therefore asserts as true the proposition that the men trained for holy war, which refutes Spencer's claim that the AP is casting doubt on the government's position.
There's an ambiguity here that Bill may have missed. When the AP wrote Benkahla was one of only two defendants who were acquitted in the government's prosecution of a dozen Muslim men who participated in what the government called a "jihad network" that used paintball games in the Virginia woods in and as a means to train for holy war around the globe.
This would be an odd editorial choice, as Spencer says, since it suggests that the whole holy-war training activity might be a figment of the prosecutors' imagination, despite the convictions obtained in a number of other cases.
Or did they intend the complement of called to end after "jihad network", so that the rest of the sentence is in the AP's own voice? That would be more in line with what I take to be the normal journalistic practice. Simplifying the sentence and drawing only the relevant structure, this is the difference between and Bill is relying on the second interpretation, I guess, but it seems to me that the first interpretation is the more natural one.
Also, the use of the term "factive" in this context may be confusing. There's a year-old neologism, due to Paul and Carol Kiparsky and widely adopted by linguists, that uses "factive" to describe verbs like know, regret, learn etc. But there's no factive verb in the AP sentence under discussion. With regard to "factive", I'm well aware that there is no factive verb here.vociferous: Pronounce vociferous with Meaning, Phonetic, Synonyms and Sentence Examples
That's why I talked about the clause being factive, not the verb. I don't agree that "factive" always suggests the use of a factive verb. Kiparsky and Kiparsky's "Fact" paper, while indeed a classic, and one whose authors are both good friends of mine, does not define the admissible uses of "factive".
As for the putative structural ambiguity, I don't think that it is really there. Not only do I consider the interpretation that I relied on, the second one, to be more natural, the first one, in which the relative clause is part of the complement of "call", is impossible as written.
To get that interpretation the relative clause would have to be within the quotes, which it is not.
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It is also important to note that even if one does get both readings of the relative clause, all that does for Spencer is to make his interpretation possible. His criticism is only valid if the interpretation on which the AP is doubting what happened is the only one. So even if Mark is right about the ambiguity, Spencer's criticism of the AP is unwarranted. This respite from the usual drumbeat of media misinformation was notable enough to catch the attention of Michael Quinion at World Wide Words and Nathan Bierma at the Chicago Tribunewho both shared Geoff's sanguine sentiment that there was "progress at last" on the snow-word front.
But the headline to Bierma's column is probably a more accurate assessment: It's been said that Eskimos - known as the Inuit these days - have 40 words for snow, reflecting how profoundly connected their lives are with the white stuff.
The rest of the item is predictable enough for anyone who knows why we call snowclones " snowclones. Murder; kill; slay; assassinate; dispatch; hit; annihilate; eliminate; eradicate; rub out; liquidate; execute; ice; cool; do in; do away with; bump off; knock off; finish off; massacre; slaughter; waste; wipe out; zap; silence; cap; whack; snuff; extinguish; exterminate; decimate; shed blood; take for a ride; take out.
Shoot; gun down; plug; fill full of lead; mow down; stab; knife; slash; flay, cut out the giblets of; eviscerate; garrote; hang; strangle; smother; suffocate; choke; asphyxiate; drown; defenestrate; bludgeon; crucify; poison; behead; guillotine; lynch; starve; gas; blow up; bomb; atomize; incinerate.
There's way more, but that's enough for a Sunday morning. So what does that big list say about us? I think it says that we have newspaper staffers who are really good at using a thesaurus and who don't bother to read the language column in their own paper.
For more coverage of the never-ending snow-word struggle, see the links in this post. Hat tip, Erin McKean. The Trib admirably issued a correction to the item. Well, director James Cameron of Titanic fame would like you to know that he's making just the movie for you. In a recent article in Entertainment Weekly, Cameron boasted that his new film project Avatar will represent the gold standard in xenolinguistics: It's the story of an ex-Marine named Jake who travels to the inhospitable planet of Pandora, where humans can survive only by — buckle up, kids — projecting their consciousness into genetically engineered bodies a.
Seems earthlings want to colonize Pandora in order to mine a valuable substance Cameron conspicuously dubs Unobtanium. Pandora's population — a fearsome alien race who lives in harmony with nature — isn't too keen on being exploited. Jake falls in love with a native, war ensues, and he must choose a side. Cameron is so committed to creating a fully formed Pandoran culture that he has linguistics professor Paul Frommer devising a new language: Is it true you have developed a whole culture and even a whole language for the aliens in this movie?
We have this indigenous population of humanoid beings who are living at a relatively Neolithic level; they hunt with bows and arrows. They live very closely and harmoniously with their environment, but they are also quite threatening to the humans who are trying to colonize and mine and exploit this planet. How long did it take to brainstorm the language? Did you work with people on that? There's a guy named Paul Froemer [sic] who I was lucky enough to encounter a year ago.
He's the head of the linguistics department at USC. I talked with a number of linguistics experts, but he was the one who kind of got the challenge.
He said, "We're going to beat Klingon! We're going to out-Klingon Klingon! We're going to have a more detailed and well thought out language than Klingon! It began by riffing off things in the treatment, but from there, it went to how sentences would be constructed, and what the sound system would be.
Recognize the service of others. As a leader it is easy to get wrapped up in big projects and ambitious initiatives, and, in the process, to forget the smaller, but no less important, individual acts of service taking place all around you. Much of that service supports and enables the widely celebrated success of others. Empathy Empathy should always be a factor in making decisions and setting goals.
Empathy represents a crucial check on action—placing a deep understanding of and concern for the human condition next to data can lead to decisions that support the wellbeing of all.
Empathy usually implies compassion and perhaps charity, but we are looking for more than that: Courage, on the other hand, compels a leader to take that right action. While many people can discern what is right and true, acting on that discernment is more difficult.
Even if risk-taking is against your nature, for the good of your organization, you must find the courage to practice it. Collaboration and Teamwork Most significant endeavors will be accomplished by a team. Certain ground rules circumvented interteam rivalries. First of all, I reminded everyone of our shared goal: Further, to support innovative, cross-disciplinary thinking, I set a second ground rule: To this, I added a third ground rule: This led to my final ground rule: Innovation presents great opportunities for smart entrepreneurs, not the other way around.
Intellectual Curiosity Beyond personal enjoyment, though, this lifelong curiosity has served me well in my career. It has enabled me to engage in meaningful dialog about the world and its future. In challenging moments, great leaders show their true character.